Paternity Testing.

Accredited results

Mission

To offer a service of excellence available to everyone.

paternity testing
Paternity testing: Easy, friendly, professional, collection points available at pharmacies, confidential, accredited.

Test procedure



Phone a depot near you to book an appointment


Bring identification documents which includes: identity documents, passports, refugee status permits, clinic card or birth certificate. (If there is no form of identification, a section can be filled in on the consent form which identifies a party).


Consent forms are filled in and blood from a finger prick is collected by trained personnel. Process takes about 20 minutes.


Payment is made at the depot via cash, cards or EFT.


The results are e-mailed or collected at the depot.


Consent


All parties must give consent for the collection of the sample and a biological test to be performed. The legal guardian also consents to the test being performed on the underage child (<18 years).


It is against the law to perform a biological test on a sample without consent from that person, or from the legal guardian. You cannot bring a hair or nail sample of a living person without their consent.

Turn-Around time


The results generally take 5-10 working days from receipt of the sample in the laboratory.

Result Report delivery


The report can be collected from the depot by the participating parties, guardians or third parties as instructed on the consent form. The report is also sent via e-mail as requested by the parties.

Legal admissibility of results


All the results are admissible in court. There is a chain of custody procedure with each process from the collection of the sample right through to the resulting of the report. We do tests for courts for legal proceedings, medical aids, deceased estate claims, insurance claims, private, collection of samples from corpses, social workers, retirement claims, genealogy, kinship, siblingship

Sample collection at separate depots


It is preferable for all parties to be together in the same room with sample collection so that the individuals can be identified and there is no doubt as to the participating parties. If both parties agree, the sample can be collected at separate depots or at different times at the same depot and the samples analysed together as one test in the laboratory.

Reasons for different types of tests performed:


Paternity: Maintenance, birth certificate, identity documents, confirmation.


Maternity: determine if a child was swopped at birth, identity documentation.


Parentage test: immigration


Kinship: deceased estate, cultural reasons, find a relative after many years, sibling relatedness


Y-chromosome: genealogy, male relatedness, relationship of deceased male figure


Principles


DNA analysis.


DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is located throughout the human body and is identical in all cells.


The scientific accuracy of paternity test interpretations depends on the quality, quantity and reliability of the relevant information used in the assessment. DNA analysis uses short tandem repeat loci which are abundant in the human genome. Each locus contains alleles (markers). One set of alleles is inherited from each parent. It is therefore important that both the parents are tested during a paternity test as one allele is first allocated to the mother and the remaining allele is allocated to the alleged father. If the alleged father


Paternity test


A person inherits 50% of the chromosomal DNA from one parent and the remaining 50% from the other parent. Therefor the samples of the mother as well as the father are required for precise results. The alleles from the child’s DNA profile are allocated to the mother first and the remaining set of alleles allocated to the father. It can happen that the alleged father is falsely included as the father of the child when the test is done on only the alleged father and the child (See published article: The importance of including maternal profiles in paternity testing – three cases of possible false inclusion with duo-only testing. Y. Harris, D. Welgemoed. Medical Technology SA Vol 32 Number 2 2 December 2018)

Maternity testing


This is to determine if a mother is the biological mother of a child. This could be for birth certificates, estate, confirmation of maternity, medical aid, hospital switches, adoption reunification. Genetic material of an alleged mother and child is analysed to determine the probability that the alleged mother is the biological mother of the child. The sample of the alleged mother and child are needed. If the alleged mother does not possess these genes, then she is excluded (ruled out) as the biological mother of the child and the probability of maternity will be 0%. If the alleged mother does possess these genes, then she is not excluded (not ruled out) as the biological mother and the probability of maternity will usually be more than 99.0%.

Test when the mother is deceased.


When the mother is deceased, the legal guardian of the underage child must give permission for a test to be done on the underage child.

Kinship testing


This test can be done on any alleged family members to determine the potential relationship between individuals. This is used to conclude estate matters, deceased relatedness, confirm relative status.

Siblingship testing


This test determines whether individuals share the same biological parent. This test is performed where the alleged parent/s are not available for testing and a DNA profile of the alleged siblings can be performed to determine whether two individuals do in fact share the same biological parent/s. Statistical calculations are used to generate a likelihood ratio value which determines the most likely hood of the relationship between the individuals tested.

Grand parentage Testing


In a case where the alleged father/mother is not available for testing, a DNA profile Grand parentage Testing can be performed to investigate the likelihood that they are the biological grandparents of the grandchild. It is recommended to test both grandparents in order to obtain the most conclusive results.

Y-chromosome testing


The Y-chromosome profiles are used to follow the paternal/male lineage.  All the men in the same family line will have the same Y-chromosome profile. Full brothers, paternal half-brothers, male children of brothers (paternal cousins), etc. will all have identical Y-chromosome profiles, indicating that they are from the same male lineage.

Twin Zygosity Testing


Twin zygosity testing is performed to determine if twins are identical (conceived from one fertilized egg which splits into two embryos early in development) or fraternal (conceived from two different eggs and sperm). Identical twins will have exactly the same DNA profile, whereas fraternal twins will have different DNA profiles, sharing only some of their DNA.

Competence


  • Fully qualified, fully trained personnel.
  • Registered medical laboratory.
  • Registered with HPCSA.
  • SANAS accredited laboratories.


Published articles


1. The importance of including maternal profiles in paternity testing – three cases of possible false inclusion with duo-only testing. Y. Harris, DJ. Welgemoed. Medical Technology SA Vol 32 Number 2 2 December 2018.


2. Nucleotide sequence analysis to identify a one-step mutation in a STR DNA profile during paternity testing at locus D7S820. Y. Harris, DJ Welgemoed, A Kotze et al. The Journal of Medical Laboratory Science and Technology South Africa. Vol. 1, No. 3, August 2019.


Sample Analyses


After DNA extraction, multiplex quantification fluorescent PCR is performed and products are analysed on an ABI automated sequencer system and data analysed and genotypes generated using Genotype software. Alleles are assigned and sized according to international nomenclature set by The International Society of Forensic Genetics.

Interpretation of results


Twenty-three markers as well as an amelogenin (sex-determining) marker are used in the kit.


Exclusion: Three or more mismatches between child and parent will exclude the parent as the parent of the child. The probability of paternity will be 0%
Non-exclusion: this means that the parent is not excluded as the parent of the child. Internationally, according to scientific literature, a probability of 98% and upwards is taken as an inclusion. One or two mismatches is taken as a mutation and still seen as an inclusion.

Contact Us

Contact: Yolanda Harris
Medical Biologist, MSc Haematology
Call 073 242 9453
Mobile 073 242 9453

Akasia
Pretoria
GAUTENG
6670

Contact: Prof D. Welgemoed.
M.Med.Pathology (UP), Clinical Haematology, Bsc (Honors)
Call 0828865587
Mobile 0843530876






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